Fiber optic cables are cables that contain thousands of optical fibers in a protective insulating sheath. 

Fiber optic networks are increasingly replacing traditional copper networks. In fact, Spain is one of the main countries in the European Union in the deployment of this type of fiber optic network, with the aim of reaching even the most rural areas. Check out its evolution and its advantages over other models, such as the high connection speeds it offers.

What is a fiber optic network?

Before we can understand what the components of a fiber optic network are, we must understand what these types of networks are made of. Let’s start with the fact that we are dealing with a technology that has been evolving for about 60 years. However, to get closer to the technology we know today, we needed to improve the glass manufacturing process used in fiber optics. Current applications are used not only in telecommunications, but also in other industries such as biomedicine, automotive and aviation.

The last mile fiber optic network is made up of active and passive elements.

The passive elements are basically the optical fibers themselves, the optical attenuators, the optical distributors and the optical shunts that can be used in deployments.

The most common active elements are headend OLTs, optical amplifiers, ONTs, and user receiving elements.

Graphically, this type of network is shown in the following figure.

Conceptually, this optical network architecture is very similar to coaxial cable and twisted pair.

Optical fiber

Among the components of a passive fiber optic network, the main component is the fiber itself. This is the heart of the cable itself and can contain hundreds of fibers depending on the design of the cable. There are different types of fibers in single mode (single mode) or multimode (multimode).

Singlemode fiber (9 µm core) is typically used over long distances due to its low attenuation and unimaginable signal transfer capabilities, depending on the light source used.

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